Persistent Organic Pollutants: assessment of transboundary pollution on global, regional, and national scales
A.Gusev, O.Rozovskaya, V.Shatalov, N.Vulykh (METEOROLOGICAL SYNTHESIZING CENTRE - EAST)
W. Aas, K. Breivik (CHEMICAL CO-ORDINATING CENTRE)
F. Couvidat (FRENCH NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT AND RISKS)
M. G. Vivanco (CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES ENERGÉTICAS, MEDIOAMBIENTALES Y TECNOLÓGICAS)
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Measurements of POP concentrations in the EMEP region, performed by the EMEP monitoring network, are overviewed in this chapter. More detailed discussion is provided for the observations of PCBs and PAHs to highlight the importance of long-term monitoring and issues, which may merit further attention. Besides, complementary monitoring activities aimed to assess POP pollution levels in the EMEP region and beyond are described.
Assessment of pollution levels and transboundary transport of PAHs, included into the Protocol on POPs, is described in Chapter 2. Analysis of spatial and temporal variability of PAH pollution levels within the EMEP domain is carried out on the basis of modelling results and measurements of the EMEP monitoring network for 2016 as well as national measurements from EEA AIRBASE. Transboundary transport of the selected PAHs is evaluated taking into account anthropogenic emission sources of the EMEP countries as well as influence of non-EMEP emissions. In addition, estimates of PAH pollution for the Arctic area within the EMEP region are also provided. Main emphasis is given to the assessment of B(a)P pollution levels and evaluation of exceedances of EU target value and WHO reference level defined for B(a)P air concentrations.
In Chapter 3 ongoing activities in framework of country-specific case study of B(a)P pollution in the EMEP countries are outlined. Evaluation of B(a)P pollution levels in Spain is continued. Besides, similar work is initiated for France. Current stage of the study is mainly focused on the analysis of discrepancies between B(a)P modelling results and observed pollution levels taking place for Spain and France as well as for some other EMEP countries. This activity includes construction of experimental emission scenarios and test model simulations in order to evaluate sensitivity of model predictions to possible uncertainties in the officially reported emission data. Particular attention is also paid to possible uncertainties in the applied modelling approach for B(a)P. Model simulations and their analysis are performed in close cooperation with national experts in modelling of B(a)P pollution.
Assessment of PCDD/F, PCB, and HCB pollution levels in the EMEP countries is given in Chapter 4. Model simulations are carried out on the basis of officially reported emission data for the new EMEP grid using the multi-media GLEMOS modelling system. Spatial trends of air pollution levels in 2016 on regional and global scales are characterized as well as transboundary transport of pollution is evaluated. Results of model simulations were compared with measurements of the EMEP monitoring sites and data of national monitoring networks. Main emphasis in these activities is given to the evaluation of PCDD/F pollution levels in the EMEP countries.
MSC-E activities related to co-operation and information sharing with subsidiary bodies to the Convention and other international organisations are discussed in Chapter 5. Results of recent activities of the Centre with regard to the assessment of POP pollution have been presented and discussed at the meetings of the EMEP task forces, namely, Task Force on Measurements and Modelling (TFMM) and Task Force on Emission Inventories and Projections (TFEIP). Special attention is also paid to the collaboration with other international organizations and programmes including the Stockholm Convention, the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), and Helsinki Commission (HELCOM).
Future activities of MSC-E will be directed to further improvement of the quality of POP pollution assessment for the EMEP region. Further development and evaluation of the Global EMEP Multi-media Modelling System (GLEMOS) will include analysis of key factors affecting uncertainties of model estimates of gas-particle partitioning and degradation in the atmosphere for PAHs as well as exchange between environmental compartments for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and HCB. Country-specific case studies of B(a)P pollution will be continued for Spain and France as well as for some other EMEP countries (e.g. Poland, Croatia, Germany) in close cooperation with national experts. Besides, development and application of methodologies, based on complementary use of multiple regression analysis, fine resolution modelling, and measurements, for the evaluation of B(a)P pollution in urban areas will be continued. Particular attention will be given to the co-operation with subsidiary bodies of the Convention (TFMM, TFHTAP, TFEIP, and WGE), international organizations (AMAP, Stockholm Convention, HELCOM etc.) and national experts. These directions of future research activities are outlined in the MSC-E work-plan for 2018-2019 and the updated Mandate of the Centre.